Crop Intensification Program (CIP)
This is one of 50 Harvesting Nutrition project case studies. Harvesting Nutrition was a contest held in 2012 and 2013 that showcased active projects working to improve the impact of agriculture and/or food security on nutrition outcomes. Co-sponsors were SecureNutrition, Save the Children UK, and the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN). Learn More.
The Crop Intensification Program (CIP) had the main goal of increasing agricultural productivity in high-potential food crops and ensuring food security and self-sufficiency. Low productivity in Rwanda is mainly attributed to low use of inputs. In a vicious cycle, the low productivity continues to prevent farmers from using inputs, as many farmers barely produce sufficient food to feed their family, and therefore have no income with which to purchase yield enhancing inputs. Thus the solution lies in breaking this cycle through appropriate intervention. Green revolution in Asia and elsewhere was mediated by the facilitation of modern inputs such as improved seeds, fertilizers and pesticides to farmers.
Increasing agricultural productivity and food security in Rwanda therefore required replication of such adoption of modern inputs by the smallholder farmers. Setting this as the goal, the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI) developed the Crop Intensification Program (CIP) in 2007 (season 2008A). Since most of the inputs have to be imported, the cost of transportation to remote areas combined with the inherent poor demand for inputs keep the prices of the inputs high. The government with the help of development partners overcame this hurdle through bulk procurement of improved seeds and fertilizers from neighboring countries and distributed the inputs to farmers through a network of public and private partnerships.
Impact of project:
The CIP program has made a significant impact on the livelihoods in both rural and urban areas. By virtues of improving food security, CIP contributes to attaining the millennium development goal of halving the number of people living in hunger and poverty in Rwanda.
The scale of success has shown that cost of achieving food security is fiscally manageable and responsible and that supporting inputs rather than food aid makes economic sense. The increased profitability through crop production has uplifted the economic well-being of thousands of farmers and farm families. The consolidated use of land and synchronization of crop activities during the season have generated large scale employment opportunities for men and women and increases in production of staple crops in the country have created large supplies of food in local markets The program has spawned several microenterprises and small businesses in processing, trading, and transportation of farm inputs and produces in rural areas. Improving the agrarian structure and the social viability in rural areas, which is a positive effect on rural development. The government is also engaged in creating a strategic food grain reserve so as to redistribute the food crops in other needy areas and seasons. This has been possible through the crop intensification process that has raised the productivity of crops through use of modern seeds and fertilizers and consolidation of land use. The large scale of production has also prompted the creation of storage facilities in several parts of the country.
Why this project is a Good Practice example:
Crop Intensification Program aims to accomplish the goal of significantly increased production of food crops across the country. It currently undertakes a multi-pronged approach that includes facilitation of inputs (improved seeds and fertilizers), it has made a significant impact on the livelihoods in both rural and urban areas. By virtues of improving food security, it contributes to attaining the millennium development goal of halving the number of people living in hunger and poverty in Rwanda. The scale of success has shown that cost of achieving food security is fiscally manageable and responsible and that supporting inputs rather than food aid makes economic sense the increased profitability through crop production has uplifted the economic wellbeing of thousands of farmers and farm families.
The program has increased the total production of maize; wheat and cassava have tripled in the past 3 years while beans production doubled. The production of rice and Irish potato has increased by 30% in the past 3 years. The total production improved mainly because of the increase in productivity per unit land area. Such outputs have transformed Rwanda from a list of food insecure countries to a country with improved food security. The program has provided the much needed foundation for a positive change in Rwanda's agriculture development it has also revealed the massive potential that exists in the country in increasing the smallholder agricultural productivity. It demonstrates that land use patterns can define the growth in productivity and development of the agriculture sector.
Impact evaluation in progress
Rwandan famers where well known to low use of inputs which led to very low productivity and prevented farmers from using inputs, as many farmers barely produced sufficient food to feed their families, and therefore leading to no income with which to purchase yield enhancing inputs. What had to work in order to change this kind of vicious cycle, we to adopt the facilitation of modern inputs such as improved seeds, fertilizers and pesticides to farmers. Setting this as the goal, the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI) developed the Crop Intensification Program (CIP).
The access to improved inputs has long been inhibiting the farmers from raising productivity levels. This access was curtailed by the low demand and costs which are further amplified by the difficulties in transportation to rural areas. To overcome these constraints, CIP took a ‘supply-push’ approach whereby the government initially supplies the inputs and the farmers are persuaded to use them. This approach raised the use of improved seeds by farmers from 3% to 40% and substantially increased the local demand and the capacity for seed production.
Crop intensification program advocated consolidation of land use by farmers; farmers in a given area need to grow specific food crops in a synchronized fashion that would improve the productivity and environmental sustainability. It also required resettlement of family housing in an administrative area (Umudugudu) from the agriculturally productive lands. Although met with reluctance from farmers at initial stages of implementation, CIP successfully convinced farmers and As a result, the consolidated use of land area under these crops increased from 28,788 Ha in 2007 to 254,000 Ha in 2010 and 502916 Ha in 2011
Funders: Government of Rwanda
Primary Contact: Donnah Mbabazi, Ministry of Finance & Economic Planning
Country: Rwanda Project Dates: started in 2007
Interventions: Target the vulnerable and improve equity, Facilitate production diversification, Empower women, Collaborate and coordinate with other sectors,
Target Population: Women, Women farmers, Rural farmers,
Project Stage: Beginning of implementation
Geographic Coverage: National